Ellagitannins (ETs) are dietary polyphenols, containing ellagic acid (EA) subunits, with antioxidant and cancer chemopreventive activities that might contribute to health benefits in humans. However, little is known about their metabolic fate. We investigate here the metabolism of different dietary ETs and EA derivatives in humans. Forty healthy volunteers were distributed in four groups. Each group consumed, in a single dose, a different ET-containing foodstuff, i.e., strawberries (250 g), red raspberries (225 g), walnuts (35 g), and oak-aged red wine (300 mL). After the intake, five urine fractions (F) were collected at 8 (F1), 16 (F2), 32 (F3), 40 (F4), and 56 (F5) h. Neither ETs nor EA were detected in urine after LC-MS/MS analysis. However, the microbial metabolite 3,8-dihydroxy-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one (urolithin B) conjugated with glucuronic acid was detected along the fractions F3-F5 in all of the subjects, independently of the consumed foodstuff. The mean percentage of metabolite excretion ranged from 2.8 (strawberries) to 16.6% (walnuts) regarding the ingested ETs. Considerable interindividual differences were noted, identifying "high and low metabolite excreters" in each group, which supported the involvement of the colonic microflora in ET metabolism. These results indicate that urolithin B (a previously described antiangiogenic and hyaluronidase inhibitor compound) is a biomarker of human exposure to dietary ETs and may be useful in intervention studies with ET-containing products. The antioxidant and anticarcinogenic effects of dietary ETs and EA should be considered in the gastrointestinal tract whereas the study of potential systemic activities should be focused on the bioavailable urolithin B derivatives.