Fruit and specific components within fruit are being associated with human health attributes, such as maintenance of urinary tract health and antioxidant status. Previous analyses of chemical constituents in cranberry fruit have been limited to a small number of compounds and have utilized the fruit from relatively few cultivars. Furthermore, recent DNA fingerprinting studies have revealed a high level of varietal misidentification within cranberry cultivars, which may have complicated the interpretation and conclusions from the previous studies. A comprehensive collection of cranberry germplasm, including domesticated and undomesticated varieties, has been established and is being maintained in genetically homogeneous field plots. Fruit samples were collected over two harvest dates in 1998 from over 390 producing germplasm plots. Horticultural (yield, fruit size, fruit rot, etc.) and fruit chemistry traits were evaluated. Fruit chemistry traits included total phenolics, total and individual anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, soluble solids, titratable acidity, quinic acid, citric acid, malic acid, and individual sugars. Significant genetic variability was found for overall phenolic, anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin levels as well as for specific phenolics, organic acids and sugars. The levels of phenolic compounds within fruit are negatively correlated with horticultural traits such as yield, fruit size, etc. Varieties having unique chemistry profiles offer genes for breeding varieties with desired fruit chemistry profiles for enhanced health attributes.